By Guglielmo Cinque
One of many world's prime syntacticians provides facts for finding Adverb words within the specifiers of specific useful projections inside of a unique and good articulated conception of the clause. during this concept, either adverbs and heads, which encode the useful notions of the clause, are ordered in a inflexible series. Cinques state of the art thought means that the constitution of traditional language sentences is way richer than formerly assumed.
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Additional info for Adverbs and Functional Heads: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective (Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax)
They comprise a varied selection of elements: place, time, manner, means, company, reason, purpose, and so forth. 3, they appear to differ from the adverb classes just considered (the AdvPs proper) in not being rigidly ordered with respect to one another. See Chomsky (1995, 333) and p. 15f. In contrast to AdvPs proper, they can also be interchangeably in one another's scope, depending on their mutual structural relation. In (120a), the place adverbial (containing an indefinite DP) is in the scope of the time adverbial containing a universal quantifier.
Versus (87b);* How cleverly has John been answering their questions stupidly? ) The same conclusion, of course, holds for the "high" position of the adverb in (83b) and (85b) (compare *John carefully has been wording the letter and *John has carefully been wording the letter). This means that there are three positions for the independent "base generation" of the same adverb, which appear to correspond to three different interpretations (even if the difference is obscured in certain contexts, as happens with the preverbal and VP-final positions in (85a) and (83a)).
53 Sueur (1978, 238) notes contrasts like the following (to be compared with (49a-b), also from Sueur 1978, which showed that in the same "space," "evaluative" adverbs must precede "epistemic modal" adverbs): ON THE RELATIVE ORDER OF ADVERB PHRASES (82) 19 a. Heureusement que sans doute, Pierre viendra. 'Luckily that, undoubtedly, P. ' b. Sans doute que heureusement, Pierre viendra. 'Undoubtedly, luckily, P. ' All this suggests that only movement to an A-bar operator position (wh- or focus) permits subversion of the relative order of two AdvPs.
Adverbs and Functional Heads: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective (Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax) by Guglielmo Cinque