By J. Milton Cowan, Hans Wehr
Its scholarship, accuracy and reliability make it some of the most major contributions to Arabic lexicography. it's was hoping that this masterpiece will aspect the best way ot wider use of recent lexicographical rules within the compilation of dictionaries for prior sessions of the Arabic language.
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Additional info for A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (3rd Edition)
However, in this case X and Yare not structurally matched; Y (the ball) is a constituent, a direct object, but X is not a constituent at all but simply an arbitrary chunk of the verb phrase. In addition the initial Z segments are not truly identical, since have in the first sentence is an auxiliary whereas it is a main verb in the second. If we coordinate these sentences we get: The boy will have been running and the ball which is clearly ungrammatical. The second constraint on X and Y is that they not only be constituents of the same type but constituents playing the same syntactic role in their respective sentences.
The dimensions of semantic modulation clearly vary from language to language but not in an unlimited way. Modalities of the Simple Sentence We have until now considered major semantic relations and modulations within a simple sentence that has been by implication also declarative and affirmative. But the remarkable and powerful fact is that all such sentences can be mapped, as wholes, into other sentence modalities, and that these others seem to be the same set in all languages: yes-no interrogatives; constituent interrogatives, imperatives and negatives.
I did this and I did that. And the dog back in and the dog back out. No, you have some and I have some. Each sentence is complete and could stand alone; nothing at all obvious is accomplished semantically by coordinating them with and. In all the full coordinations we have heard children speak and in most, if not all, we have heard from adults, there is some kind of continuity of thought in the coordinated sentences. If they were not coordinated we would find it natural to hear first one and then the other.
A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (3rd Edition) by J. Milton Cowan, Hans Wehr