By L. G. Kelly
This publication presents a brand new place from which to view language instructing. It does so by means of giving the 1st accomplished account of the foundation and improvement of the elemental contributions to the sector. Professor's Kelly's discoveries dispel the tendency to think that groovy contributions to language educating happened simply within the twentieth Century. His discoveries basically convey that rules in language educating have complicated and retreated over approximately 2,000 years.
Beginning in 500 B.C. with the Roman fascination with Greek rhetoric, Professor Kelly systematically labored out his means via hundreds of thousands of references in lots of languages. Going deep into the roots of the topic, he exposed files of old breakthroughs, which he documents right here for the 1st time in English. His learn finds that lots of our "modern" contributions are quite a while previous.
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Additional info for 25 centuries of language teaching; an inquiry into the science, art, and development of language teaching methodology, 500 B.C.-1969
Now suppose there is an object about which you know only that it has a 3-inch diameter, and consider two questions about it: First, is it more likely to be a pizza or a quarter? And second, is it more similar to pizzas or to quarters? The answer to the first question clearly seems to be that the object is a pizza; for even though 3 inches is much smaller than the pizzas you usually encounter it is easy to imagine making one this small. It is harder (though not impossible) to imagine how a 3-inch quarter could come about.
According to Medin and Schaffer, if you have to decide whether a given instance is a member of one of several categories, you do it by retrieving from memory a category member that the target instance reminds you of. The member that you retrieve then determines the category of the new instance. For example, if the target instance happens to remind you of a particular egg - maybe the one you had for breakfast today — then you will classify this new instance as an egg too. For our purposes, the important point is that the instance you are reminded of is assumed to be entirely a function of similarity.
J. (1980). Analogical problem solving. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 306-355. L.. J. (1983). Schema induction and analogical transfer. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 1-38. Holyoak, K. , 8c Koh, K. (1986). Analogical problem solving: Effects of surface and structural similarity. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago. , 8c Tversky, A. (1972). Subjective probability: A judgment of representativeness. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 430-454. , 8c Tversky, A. (1973).
25 centuries of language teaching; an inquiry into the science, art, and development of language teaching methodology, 500 B.C.-1969 by L. G. Kelly