By Raymond P. Scheindlin
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Extra info for 201 Arabic verbs : fully conjugated in all the forms
Where the palatal glide occurs in Indonesian cognates, a voiced palatal stop // is generally found in Madurese. 10 Stevens (1966) notes that Proto-Malayo-Polynesian word-final *p, *t, and *k developed into Madurese //. It is possible that words that do have final /p/, /t/, and /k/ entered the language through borrowing from Malay and/or Javanese or at least were influenced by them. Sound correspondences 23 (5) Madurese /parcaa/ /akɛn/ 11 /atɛm/ /caa/ /sɔrbaa/ Indonesian [parcaɤ] /pəraja/ [ɤɛ] /jakin/ [ɤtɛ] /jatim/ [cɤɤ] /aja/ [sɔrbɤɤ] /surabaja/ Javanese /pərcaja/ /jakin/ /jatim/ /aja/ /surabaja/ ‘believe’ ‘sure’ ‘orphan’ ‘victory’ ‘Surabaya’ In some cognates, Madurese has a voiceless aspirated /t.
Its operation with liquids is illustrated in (56). (56) bɤlɤntɤ bɤrɤmpa tɤlubɤ malara karaɔwan paraɔ salamə sarɛkɤp [blɤntɤ] ‘Dutch’ [brɤmpa] ‘how much’ [tlubɤ] ‘paper’ [mlara] ‘miserable’ [kraɔwan] ‘palace/kingdom’ [praɔ] ‘ship’ [slamə] ‘safe’ [srɛkɤp] ‘energetic’ Vowel deletion with glides is exemplified in (57). 1). Thus this deletion process takes place only in intermediate forms. Examples include: (57) kɔacɛ pɛara sɔara kɔwacɛ pɛjara sɔwara [kwacɛ ‘magpie’ [pjara] ‘look after’ [swara] ‘sound/voice’ The results of the dialect study of Sutoko et al.
Stevens (1968) cites this rule, and the reflexes ] and  are included in Safioedin (1977) and Oka et al. (1988/89). Potential examples include: (34)  ~ [n] ‘star’ [kippɔn] ~ [kppɔn] ‘confused’ [buntɔ] ~ [bʊntɔ] ‘tail’ Cohn & Lockwood (1994) report that for the two speakers they studied, high front and high back vowels were significantly shorter in duration in closed syllables than in open syllables. They reported no significant differences in the F1 and F2 values in the same environments.
201 Arabic verbs : fully conjugated in all the forms by Raymond P. Scheindlin